The Mill Creek Coalition of Clarion and Jefferson Counties (MCC) has been in existence since the fall of 1990, with its first AMD treatment system (Howe Bridge Site) constructed in late 1991. Presently, the Coalition is at a crossroads with an aging leadership, more of a focus on Jones/Douglass Run, maintaining or improving the effectiveness of the present 20+ passive treatment systems, moving forward on the design and construction of future systems, continuing the monitoring of the fisheries and aquatic insects in the entire watershed, dealing with a phasing out of Growing Greener funds, and planning for a likely shift of funding to BAMR due to the reauthorization of SMCRA in late 2006.
Following is a summary of the Coalition’s background along with the important events and accomplishments, which have transpired over the two decades of the Coalition’s existence. Additionally, a five year plan (2011-2015) is provided, that if enacted will result in the potential establishment of a quality and sustainable coldwater fishery throughout more of the watershed.
Noted earlier, the MCC came into existence in 1990 after a fall conference held at Clarion University focused on the restoration of Mill Creek from the effects of AMD. Streams in both Clarion and western Jefferson Counties are heavily impacted by AMD resulting in sufficient interest to initiate a watershed restoration project. The conference focused on Mill Creek for a number of reasons.
Passive treatment systems at that time were becoming functional realities, and the discharges on the watershed were thought to be treatable volumes and chemistries by agency and watershed restoration consultants.
Two pre-coalition studies on the watershed, one by the Army Corps of Engineers and the other by DEP (EADS contract) provided important guidance documents on AMD discharges and their locations.
The Knox District Mining Office (DMO) believed that future mining in the watershed would be negligible because of the sulfur content of the coal and overburden chemistry.
The encouragement, helpfulness, overall support and proximity of the Knox DMO was an important key factor in the formation of the MCC.
The main stem of Mill Creek from its mouth at the Clarion River and upstream through all of Clarion County and nearly two miles of Jefferson County is in State Game Lands 74. Therefore, this stretch is open to the public and any improvements in the watershed would be enjoyed by everyone.
Some of the tributaries and the upper 9-10 miles of the relatively unpolluted main stem, constituting about 50 percent of the watershed, have a native brook trout fishery. A significant tributary to Mill Creek, Pendleton/McCanna Run, is a designated Wilderness Trout Waters.
Several environmental organizations (Trout Unlimited, Audubon, County Federation of Sportsmen) draw their membership from individuals in both counties and willingly constitute part of the active membership of the MCC.
The interest for stream restoration was strong enough that bi-county support from political offices (commissioners), natural resource agencies (conservation districts, NRCS offices and RC&D units (PennSoil, Headwaters) provide an influential and talented group to guide and participate in the MCC.
The watershed is entirely within the Pennsylvania Congressional District 5, and in two State House of Representative Districts (63 and 66) and within two State Senate Districts ( 21 and 25).
The Mill Creek Watershed, at about 60 square miles, appears in the “State’s High Priority List of Degraded Watersheds” published in 1997, being part of watershed 17B, a tributary of the Clarion River.
A NRCS PL83-566 Watershed Agreement was approved in 1999. It provided the locations for all the AMD sites within the watershed with representative flows and water chemistry for each as well as an estimated treatment cost in 1999 dollars for each site.
To follow the mandate of federal section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act, which requires Pennsylvania to establish water quality standards, five TMDLs have been completed in the watershed by DEP’s Knox District Mining Office (DMO) and approved by the EPA: Whites Run, Douglass/Jones Run, Parks Run, Little Mill Creek, and most recently, Mill Creek. The latter was published in the Pennsylvania Bulletin in the fall of 2008, and approved by EPA in 2009.
In 1996, a 51.7 mile length of the Clarion River received federal Wild and Scenic River designation down to the Piney Dam pool. Mill Creek is the first AMD-affected watershed below the designated segment and with other AMD streams below Mill Creek; result in the degradation of the Clarion River as it flows toward the Allegheny River. Clarion and Jefferson Counties are part of the “PA Wilds”, a special designated multi-county area noted for its many natural resource attractions. Established in 2004, funding opportunities are available to promote and develop outdoor recreational opportunities.
The MCC from its inception did not wish to receive or administer grant monies because of limitations of time and the expertise of its officers. Fortunately, with NRCS as a Coalition member as well as two conservation districts (Clarion and Jefferson) and two RC&D trusts (Headwaters and Penn Soil), arrangements were made very early in the Coalition’s formative months to have the Headwaters Charitable Trust agree to serve as the administrator and co-writer of most grants. Headwaters has experience with AMD issues, has the administrative personnel, and most of the Mill Creek AMD sites fall within its jurisdictional boundaries.
Up to the present, the Coalition and its state, federal, non-governmental organizations and other partners have plugged two abandoned gas wells, treated approximately two dozen AMD sites via the construction of passive treatment systems, along with other accomplishments, slightly over 40 sites have been improved, resulting in less AMD flowing into the watershed (Figure 3). More specifics are noted in the Financial Support section.
Recognizing the need to improve and upgrade the performance of the Coalition’s older passive treatment systems, EADS and Dietz-Gourley Consulting were funded to provide an assessment and recommendations for these systems. The study was completed in 2006. Based on the report, a Growing Greener grant was written in 2007 to address several priority sites. The grant was not funded. It was resubmitted in 2008 and was not funded. The grant was resubmitted in 2009 and received funding from the 319 program to upgrade three sites in 2011, with another scheduled for 2012. Another Growing Greener grant proposal was submitted in 2010 for funding to upgrade another of the older sites (Beagle), but was not funded.
In 1996, the formation of a C&K trust fund initiated perpetual treatment on six significant AMD sites in the watershed. The Knox DMO oversees the day-to-day operations of a contracted entity responsible for treatment and maintenance activities.
Over the years, the Coalition has taken the responsibility of periodically collecting water samples from select points within each passive treatment system as well as upstream and downstream water samples, then conducting the appropriate water chemistry analyses at Clarion University’s water testing laboratory located within the Biology Department. These monitoring data are important to understanding the performance of the systems. The Knox DMO and BAMR continue to collect water samples and some stream flow data, from which loadings can be calculated. Their samples are analyzed in the state laboratory in Harrisburg. All these data are critically important in monitoring changes in water quality over time as well as providing information to assist in future AMD treatment decisions.
The MCC is pleased that since its inception it has employed over three dozen topnotch undergraduate students from Clarion University, many of whom have pursued graduate studies. Nearly all of them have become employed in some field of aquatic ecology. In addition, five Masters Degree students have conducted their research projects on the watershed. Also, hundreds of elementary, middle and high school classes have visited one or more stream segments and passive treatment sites. Several Clarion University biology courses utilize the watershed for lab exercises and independent studies. The MCC and faculty at Clarion University periodically sample segments of Mill Creek (AMD affected and non-AMD affected segments) for fish, using minnow trapping and electrofishing techniques in order to monitor population health and recolonization patterns. Aquatic invertebrates are occasionally monitored.
The Clarion Conservation District acquired and administered funding to do extensive surface liming on two 90-acre sites located on previously strip-mined areas on the headwaters of Jones Run. Also, the District examined three locations on the lower Jones/Douglass watershed where AMD problems exist which may have resulted from past gas drilling activities. Exploratory drilling was conducted at possible well sites. The AMD problems were determined to not have originated at the surface due to past drilling activities.
To date, because of a half dozen treatment (active and passive) sites on the upper portion of Mill Creek itself, the stream has retained its native brook trout and other fish and invertebrates throughout the upper two-thirds (14-15 miles) of its length. The lower one third (six miles) of Mill Creek is mildly compromised by intensively AMD treated Little Mill Creek and profoundly affected by untreated Jones/Douglass Run. After the Coalition initiated its restoration work on the watershed, the PA Fish and Boat Commission established a second trout stocking point on Mill Creek at Howe Bridge. This site is approximately four miles upstream from the original stocking location at Old State Road Bridge near the mouth of Pendleton/McCanna Run. Excluding earlier data, for the five-year period 1990-1994, 17,400 brook trout were released during pre-season and post-season stockings. After the Commission’s evaluation of Mill Creek waters in the Howe Bridge vicinity, stocking was also approved for that location in 1995. In the next five years, stocking increased to 31,500, an 80 percent increase, due to improvements in water quality. Both stocking points are located on Game Lands 74, and easily accessible to trout fishing enthusiasts.
The approximately 9 mile long Little Mill Creek, where much of the attention and effort has been focused, has improved 100-fold in pH, from approximately 4.0 to 6.0. In 2007, crayfish were found throughout its total length, along with four species of fish, but with only one species of minnow (creek chub) having consistently healthy populations at each sampling site. In 2008, minnows had disappeared from a significant length of Little Mill Creek before rebounding, indicating that water chemistry and water quality stability need to be addressed in selected areas. For unknown reasons at this time, there appear to be infrequent events, which result in the pH to briefly drop, thus affecting fish recolonization. The construction of two adjacent passive treatment systems (Filson 7 sites) in the summer of 2008 was a positive step in alleviating these concerns.
Also benefiting Little Mill Creek, two AMD sites on the Corsica tributary to Little Mill Creek have completed designs for passive treatment systems, with construction initiated in late 2010. Funding from the NRCS PL83-566 program was approved for construction and completion in 2010-2011.
Overall, the positive improvement on Little Mill Creek has resulted in an approximately 10-fold increase in pH (mid 5s to low 6s) for Mill Creek after the former merges with Mill Creek. However, that improvement is soon negated by the water from Jones/Douglass one half mile downstream, where the pH is decreased to about 5.0 for the final six miles of Mill Creek. Nevertheless, there is enough of a positive change that crayfish, albeit in small numbers, have recolonized Mill Creek below Little Mill Creek to its confluence with the Clarion River.
Efforts are moving forward to start addressing AMD problems on Jones/Douglass. Based on support from TU-TAG, Hedin Environmental initiated a water quality assessment on the upper portion of the watershed in 2010, with completion in 2011 for the lower section.
The MCC benefited from a “Mill Creek Watershed Assessment of an Acid-Mine Drainage Abatement Project in Clarion (ed. note, also Jefferson) County: Final Report”. This project, funded in 1999, was made possible by a grant from the Center for Rural Pennsylvania, a legislative agency of the Pennsylvania General Assembly. Published in 2001, it included among a number of topics, an assessment of the passive treatment systems and their impact on stream water chemistry and invertebrate and fish communities up to 1999. Included is “A Users Guide for the Mill Creek Watershed Water Quality Database”.
In the spring of 2011, a M. S. thesis written by Clarion University student Amy Myers was completed. The thesis analyzed macroinvertebrate data collected in the Little Mill Creek Watershed from 1994 to 2007. A number of analyses showed that macrovertebrate assemblages improved in the watershed after the completion of a number of the treatment systems, especially during the mid-1990s. The data also indicated that there has been a decline in those assemblages with the gradual lowering of the treatment efficiency of the systems over time. As some of these systems are scheduled for improvement in 2011-2012, a new macroinvertebrate study would be very useful to learn more about how macroinvertebrate assemblages vary with the success of passive treatment. A fall 2011 survey of the aquatic macroinvertebrates will be conducted at selected sites, primarily in Little Mill Creek, by the Watershed Assistance Center of the Western Pennsylvania Conservancy.
Little Mill Creek has benefited from four mining/re-mining projects from 2003-2005 by Ben Hal Mining Company, MSM Mining Company, TDK Coal Sales and Sky Haven Coal, Inc. While mining, previous coal high walls were eliminated, alkaline material was added to overburden and soil, surface water runoff efficiencies were improved, and pools of acidic water within the permitted areas were eliminated.
The MCC has received a number of awards as recognition for its successes and sustained long-term efforts to establish a coldwater fishery throughout more of the watershed. Some of these awards include: Conservation Organization of the Year from the Pennsylvania Wildlife Federation (1993), the Watershed Protection Award from the Pennsylvania Association of Conservation Districts (1993). The Three Rivers Environmental Award (1998), and The Governor’s Award for Watershed Stewardship (2002).
For those interested in AMD and stream restoration efforts, the Mill Creek Coalition has received more attention than probably any other watershed in the state, and perhaps the nation. The MCC is unique in its formation because the organization exists to principally address AMD problems in a watershed. There have been a number of tours to Mill Creek for in-state, out-of-state and foreign guests in order to view particular AMD treatment designs and functions. Researchers, including MCC members, have presented papers and displays at state, national and international meetings. The same goes for peer-reviewed papers in professional publications. A number of undergraduates, graduate students and faculty at Clarion University and elsewhere have conducted their research at AMD sites and the waters of Mill Creek itself.
Recognizing the importance of communicating to the residents of Clarion and Jefferson Counties, MCC routinely invites local journalists to new treatment sites as well as providing news releases to four local newspapers. In addition, the MCC has a display at the annual spring National Wildlife Week/Sportsmen’s Days three-day program at the Clarion Mall, an activity in which it has participated for the past 15 years.
Since the formation of the MCC, nearly $12 million has been invested in the Mill Creek Watershed as the Coalition pursues its efforts to restore a coldwater fishery throughout the watershed. The primary agencies and organizations which provided the funding are noted below, along with the amounts. However, keep in mind that there has been a huge amount of donated time and labor that has been, and remains invaluable for the continued upgrading of the watershed. In addition, NRCS, DEP and county conservation district personnel have contributed many hours in the field and office.
The Headwaters Charitable Trust is utilized by the MCC for assisting in its grant applications and administrative functions for many of the passive treatment systems. Headwaters has administered DEP Growing Greener, 104b and 319 funds, as well as support monies from TAG, WPCAMR, WPC, and the Western PA Watershed Protection Program. Financial support has also been received from EPA, OSM, NRCS, and several foundations/businesses. All in all, Headwaters has administered approximately $2,000,000 up to 2008. The following paragraphs include funding administered by Headwaters since 2008 as well as funding and support from other sources.
Clarion University provided a water chemistry lab and other physical support for the participating faculty. Importantly, university funding provided work-study and graduate student funding over the past two decades. Together over forty undergraduate and graduate students have been employed by the MCC providing approximately $60,000 in field and lab services.
BAMR has invested in six sites, including the Shofestall/Zerbe alkaline addition backfill site and the Strattanville site, totaling $3,988,457. This number does not include development, design, inspection and monitoring of the sites.
The Knox DMO has provided in excess of $110,000 from in lieu of civil penalty monies and other sources. The staff has participated in numerous field trips to the watershed, independently as well as by request from the MCC. The Knox office conducted all the TMDLs on the watershed. The office is supportive of MCC’s efforts with staff attending Coalition meetings when requested.
The Knox DMO and BAMR have provided water sampling services throughout the watershed while monitoring AMD sites, stream sites, and BAMR treatment sites. Over the nearly two decades of the MCC’s existence, hundreds of water samples have been analyzed. Presently priced at over $50/sample via the Harrisburg lab, just 2,000 samples would equal about $100,000. Clarion University provided a lab for water sampling at MCC’s approximately two dozen passive treatment sites. Over the years, many hundreds of samples have been analyzed at approximately one-half the cost to DEP and conducted primarily by undergraduates under faculty supervision, a value of at least $50,000.
The Bureau of Oil and Gas (DEP) invested $150,218 and its own personnel to investigate four potential abandoned gas well sites on the watershed and successfully identified and plugged two. After initial drilling, the remaining two sites were determined not to be abandoned wells.
The Clarion Conservation District received a Growing Greener grant of $40,000 to investigate some potential abandoned gas well sites on the Jones/Douglass watershed. No gas well drill holes were found.
DEP’s Knox DMO oversees the active chemical treatment of six AMD treatment sites previously the responsibility of C&K Coal prior to its bankruptcy. Funded through a trust account and serviced by a private contractor since July 2006, approximately $100,000/year is expended for treatment site operation and maintenance. The C&K sites have existed prior to MCC’s two decades of existence, with C&K constructing and servicing the systems. Since the time C&K was involved in these sites, maintaining and treating them just during the two decades the MCC has existed, it is reasonable to assume that $2,000,000 or more have been expended. This includes one treatment system on Schnepp Road, which was upgraded with the addition of an ALD in the past decade for approximately $70,000. All were (and still are) designed primarily for treatment with caustic soda or other alkaline chemicals. The cumulative treatment costs have far surpassed the original construction costs.
The NRCS’s PL 83-566 program has provided $400,000 in matching funds and $800,000 in services. These monies aided in the construction of the REM (Orcutt-Smail) passive treatment site as well as various design and construction oversight services at that site and elsewhere. Most recently (2010), a grant of $517,000 was awarded for the construction of two AMD treatment sites on an unnamed tributary (known by the MCC as the Corsica tributary) of Little Mill Creek. The two sites will be completed in 2011.
A number of small grants and contributions have come from other sources. Two of the largest include Trout Unlimited, a Coalition member, which has provided $35,000 in support of various projects funded by money received from local, state and national levels. The McLean Contributionship has provided $45,000 in support. S&T Bank donated $10,000. Headwaters administered the above funding. Clarion University, Trout Unlimited-Iron Furnace Chapter and the Clarion County Federation of Sportsmen have covered copying and mailing costs for the monthly minutes.
A grant of $44,500 was awarded in 1999 by the Center for Rural Pennsylvania, a legislative agency of the Pennsylvania General Assembly. See “Accomplishments” for a further description.
In its first years, the Coalition received invaluable donated time and services from Damariscotta Consulting and Simpson Excavating. Similarly, the PA National Guard, Company B, 876th Engineer Battalion, stationed in Punxsutawney, donated their men and machinery for most of the construction at the first four AMD sites the Coalition addressed. These donations are estimated to be at least $150,000 if they were contracted services and are included in the paragraph covering Headwaters accounts.
Through the Clarion Conservation District, the Alliance for Wetlands and Wildlife, NRCS, and the PA Game Commission, a Growing Greener grant in the amount of $108,000 was funded to support a pilot land-liming project on Jones Run. The initial phase treated 90 acres of private land at 20 tons/acre of agricultural lime on the western headwaters which had been strip-mined, leveled and planted primarily in tolerant species of trees, but sparsely vegetated at the time of this project in 2001. The project expanded onto a 90 acre portion of Game Lands 74, again at 20 tons/acre, on another headwaters portion of Jones Run. The Alliance for Wetlands and Wildlife purchased a lime spreader for the Game Commission, with the Commission doing the spreading.
In 2009, the REM Site received an $82,000 grant from DEP as it transitions from MCC responsibilities to DEP. The grant covers continued site flushing, water sampling, maintenance, lab analyses, travel, etc., with most of the expenditures dedicated to contractual services for design of an upgrade/replacement system. Administered by the Headwaters Charitable Trust, the grant ends November 2011. A long-term treatment plan, using a lime slurry and reactor system in conjunction with a modification of the present treatment ponds, was approved early in 2011. The cost is estimated roughly at $150,000. Operation and maintenance expenses could range from $30,000-$40,000 per year; a more accurate estimate has yet to be determined.
In 2009 and 2010, two TU-TAG grants totaling $10,500 were awarded to Hedin Environmental to provide a watershed assessment for Jones/Douglass, to be completed in 2011.
In 2010, DEP (319 Nonpoint Source Program) has awarded $65,041, with an OSM match of $18,500, thus totaling $83,541 to do an upgrade of three sites (Morrow, Bog, Filson 5/6). Construction will occur in 2011. A DEP-OSM award of $187,000 is dedicated to Filson 4 with construction completed in late 2012.
Four re-mining activities in the watershed occurred during the period of 2000-2005. Their estimated value of the reclamation work was calculated by DEP. The MSM Mining Company was listed at $93,000, Ben Hal at $5,595, TDK at $185,000 and Sky Haven at $784,686, for a total of $1,068,281.
Up to this point, slightly less than 500 gpm have been treated on the main stem of Mill Creek via a combination of active and passive treatment systems. On the other hand, for the seriously affected Little Mill, over three times as many treatment systems (passive) have been constructed, two abandoned gas wells plugged, one significant lime addition/recontouring/diversion project completed (Shofestall/Zerbe) and four re-mining projects have decreased the quantity of AMD affected water and provided surface water runoff. As a result, it is estimated that the quality of approximately 1,000 gpm of Little Mill water has been improved by some treatment design. The flow of Little Mill ranges from roughly 1000-4000 gpm in late summer and fall to about 6,000-9,000 gpm, primarily in the spring. Hence, the remarkable improvement to Little Mill water quality is a function of the concerted long-term team efforts to address AMD in this watershed.
In summary, adding the costs, which are enumerated above, amount to approximately $12,000,000. This does not take into account the nearly $100,000/year treatment of the six trust supported C&K Coal sites established in 1996. Nor does it take into account the huge amout of volunteer and agency personnel time and expense.
There are a number of important strategic priorities on which the Coalition will focus its efforts for the next five years:
The Coalition will continue to vigorously pursue funding to improve and upgrade the passive treatment systems on the watershed. Several systems constructed by BAMR need to be reviewed and perhaps improved and upgraded during the same time period. Nearly all the systems are within the Little Mill Creek drainage and critical to the water quality of Mill Creek. With fish documented in 2007 for the first time throughout Little Mill Creek, the Coalition is concerned that shrinking levels of Growing Greener and other types of state and federal agency funding may make it difficult to maintain present systems and impede further progress in the watershed. The lack of funding to maintain the improvement in water quality that has been accomplished thus far is a challenge. To date, it represents the most serious funding shortage during its 20 years of commitment to the Mill Creek Watershed with DEP’s 319 program currently being the only effective funding source at the moment. DEP in 2008 accepted responsibility for the REM (Smail-Orcutt) Site. The MCC and DEP are working together to ensure that both short and long term treatment goals are met. A treatment design was approved early in 2011.
Funding through the PL83-655 program will provide for the construction of two passive treatment systems on the Corsica Tributary, which flows into the lower half of Little Mill Creek. Construction will be completed in 2011. After their completion, only a few remaining AMD sites amenable to passive treatment remain on Little Mill Creek.
The Jones/Douglass tributary will receive substantial attention during the next five years and likely beyond. It is the second largest tributary to the Mill Creek Watershed. It is about five miles in length, and includes approximately 11% of the watershed area (compared to 25% for Little Mill Creek). Based on low flow conditions in the fall, Jones/Douglass contributes approximately 15% of the flow into Mill Creek, but is responsible for about 50% of the acidity, iron and manganese and 85% of the aluminum to Mill Creek. Numerous AMD discharges are on the Jones/Douglass tributary, some of which due to location, would be difficult to treat via a passive treatment system. While the Douglass fork has AMD problems, they are slight compared to the much larger contribution provided by Jones Run. The important AMD sites need to be field investigated, a sampling regimen established, flow and loading rated determined, and a source of funding identified to cover sampling expenses. A “TAG” grant was awarded in 2009 and again in 2010 to Hedin Environmental to field visit the watershed, take water samples, examine past data on the watershed, then ultimately provide treatment recommendations. A final comprehensive report will be provided in late 2011. A design and construction phase will follow, which will likely go beyond 2015.
Because of Mill Creek’s general lack of alkalinity and the presence of acidity, discussions have ensued between the Coalition, BAMR and selected environmental consultants about the potential construction of several lime dosing/slurry plants on the Mill Creek Watershed. For lime dosing, it is desirable to have reasonably fast current conditions, multiple riffles, a significant elevation drop and accessibility: several locations on Little Mill Creek and Jones/ Douglass do exist. Lime slurry plants, because of faster oxidation reactions, can be associated with passive treatment systems or direct input to a stream. Initial cost, yearly operation costs and applicability of dosing/slurry systems within the watershed all need to be critically ascertained.
The Coalition intends to continue its cooperative relationship with the PA Fish and Boat Commission, including the identification of other stocking possibilities as water quality continues to improve in the watershed, thus providing additional fishing opportunities for the public.
The MCC intends to continue participating with DEP and others in water sampling throughout the watershed. It will also continue to monitor crayfish/fish presence and diversity through minnow trapping and electrofishing methodologies. With assistance from Clarion University faculty and students and others, the stream invertebrates will also be occasionally sampled.
Lastly, the commitment of financial and personnel resources over the past two decades by MCC and such a diverse group of NGOs, state, and federal agencies is truly impressive. To maintain this level of success and to guarantee a sustainable level of improvement and maintenance, the MCC will actively pursue having the Mill Creek Watershed become a Qualified Hydrological Unit within BAMR’s Acid Mine Drainage Set-Aside Program. The MCC looks forward to maintaining its academic/research/educational relationship with Clarion University and the surrounding community. The Coalition will continue having its members contributing to the WPCAMR, state and federal AMD related meetings and conferences, and providing press releases to the newspapers servicing this area.
The Mill Creek Coalition celebrated its 20-year anniversary in the fall of 2010. It very likely is one of the first watershed groups formed in the United States solely committed to address AMD problems in a local watershed. Its successes are attributed to its many partners: an amalgam of talented and dedicated individuals, local environmental/conservation groups, a local university, regional foundations and NGOs, several outstanding consultant groups, and enthusiastic supportive agencies at the local, state, and national levels.
A five-year plan is outlined, which if successful, will result in the restoration of a coldwater fishery, much of it self-reproducing, throughout the watershed. Caveats remain, however. They include recruitment of younger motivated individuals into the MCC leadership, a continued commitment from funding entities, and a realization by DEP and NRCS that the long-term success within a watershed may ultimately depend on agency leadership and support.
For additional information contact Terry Morrow.